# Waves in space-dependent and time-dependent materials

### A systematic comparison

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## Abstract

Waves in space-dependent and in time-dependent materials obey similar wave equations, with interchanged time- and space-coordinates. However, since the causality conditions are the same in both types of material (i.e., without interchangement of time- and space-coordinates), the solutions are dissimilar. We present a systematic treatment of wave propagation and scattering in 1D space-dependent and in 1D time-dependent materials. After formulating unified equations, we discuss Green's functions and simple wave field representations for both types of material. Next we discuss propagation invariants, i.e., quantities that are independent of the space coordinate in a space-dependent material (such as the net power-flux density) or of the time coordinate in a time-dependent material (such as the net field-momentum density). A discussion of general reciprocity theorems leads to the well-known source–receiver reciprocity relation for the Green's function of a space-dependent material and a new source–receiver reciprocity relation for the Green's function of a time-dependent material. A discussion of general wave field representations leads to the well-known expression for Green's function retrieval from the correlation of passive measurements in a space-dependent material and a new expression for Green's function retrieval in a time-dependent material. After an introduction of a matrix–vector wave equation, we discuss propagator matrices for both types of material. Since the initial condition for a propagator matrix in a time-dependent material follows from the boundary condition for a propagator matrix in a space-dependent material by interchanging the time- and space-coordinates, the propagator matrices for both types of material are interrelated in the same way. This also applies to representations and reciprocity theorems involving propagator matrices, and to Marchenko-type focusing functions.