Multi-disciplinary Use of Three-Dimensional Geospatial Information

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Abstract

In this chapter, we start from the typical concepts from Geographic Information System (GIS): data representation, acquisition, querying and analysis. We follow with the transition from 2 to 3D GIS and describe open standards such as CityGML and CityJSON and recent advances on 3D geospatial simulations, computing and real-time GIS and Internet of Things (IoT). Then we discuss the discrepancies in information management and modelling with respect to Building Information Modelling (BIM) and the related open standard, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). We highlight the difference between Cartesian engineering coordinate systems and geospatial coordinate reference systems, contrast the procedural geometry definitions of IFC with the explicit geometries of GIS and look at implementation mechanisms such as boundary representations and polyhedral surface models and describe the semantic Level of Detail used in CityGML. The section that follows describes relevant processes supporting integration such as georeferencing, conversion of formats using semantic and geometric approaches and linking of heterogeneous information. We also highlight interoperability challenges that stem from consistency and validity of data, by interpreting the results of a recent benchmark on interoperability of the most common involved data formats (CityGML and IFC). We close with a conclusion and perspectives on the future with case studies on geo-enabled building permit checking and geospatial artificial intelligence and machine learning.