Static and dynamic aeroelastic tailoring with composite blending and manoeuvre load alleviation

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In aircraft design, proper tailoring of composite anisotropic characteristics allows to achieve weight saving while maintaining good aeroelastic performance. To further improve the design, dynamic loads and manufacturing constraints should be integrated in the design process. The objective of this paper is to evaluate how the introduction of continuous blending constraints affects the optimum design and the retrieval of the final stacking sequence for a regional aircraft wing. The effect of the blending constraints on the optimum design (1) focuses on static and dynamic loading conditions and identifies the ones driving the optimization and (2) explores the potential weight saving due to the implementation of a manoeuvre load alleviation (MLA) strategy. Results show that while dynamic gust loads can be critical for wing design, in the case of a regional aircraft, their influence is minimal. Nevertheless, MLA strategies can reduce the impact of static loads on the final design in favour of gust loads, underlining the importance of considering such load-cases in the optimisation. In both cases, blending does not strongly affect the load criticality and retrieve a slightly heavier design. Finally, blending constraints confirmed their significant influence on the final discrete design and their capability to produce more manufacturable structures.