Transitioning towards Circular Economy on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bali, Indonesia

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Municipal Solid Waste has been an issue that is affecting people globally. The rapid urbanization and population growth created an immense waste generation in the process, making it more difficult to completely manage the waste due to the amount and complexity of the waste composition. Indonesia is not excluded from the issue, where there is an absence of an effective waste management system in the country. Bali Province is a region where the primary economic source is tourism, and the development of tourism in the region is reflected in the increase in waste generation in the Province. The current waste management system in Bali could not follow the rate at which the waste is generated, therefore causing the waste to be mismanaged and losing its potential to be recovered. Bali still implements the conventional paradigm of the linear economy using take-make-dispose, where the materials are simply collected, transformed into products that are used, and discarded as waste. This system relies mainly on the usage of landfills. However, Bali is currently facing the issue of waste overflowing in landfills, and the landfills are on the verge of closing. As a solution to the old paradigm, Circular Economy (CE) is introduced where it can minimize resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage by slowing, closing, and narrowing the material and energy loops. To create a transition from linear to circular economy in Bali’s MSWM context, a systemic analysis based on a multi-dimensional approach is needed. Value Chain Analysis (VCA) is one way to explore strategic and misalignment within the chain to increase value and economic sustainability, and by integrating social and environmental aspects, a more sustainable competitive advantage can be reached...