Kinetics of DNA looping by Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT) by using DNA cyclization assay

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DNA cyclization assay together with single-molecule FRET was employed to monitor protein-mediated bending of a short dsDNA (~ 100 bp). This method provides a simple and easy way to monitor the structural change of DNA in real-time without necessitating prior knowledge of the molecular structures for the optimal dye-labeling. This assay was applied to study how Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT) facilitates loop formation of DNA as a possible mechanism for gene regulation. The ASRT-induced DNA looping was maximized at 50 mM of Na+, while Mg2+ also played an essential role in the loop formation.