Assessing the Operation of Typical Dutch Distribution Systems with Large Penetration of Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

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Currently, the majority of the available test feeder models are based on the North American type of distribution systems, leaving an absence of representative feeder models for the European (and Dutch) types of distribution systems. Therefore, a standardized set of power flow models for typical Dutch LV distribution networks is developed using real networks and operational data provided by a Dutch DSO. These network models are used to assess if typical Dutch LV distribution networks are ready to operate with large penetration of low-carbon energy technologies (e.g. PV systems, electric heat pumps, EVs). According to the obtained results, simulations of all the modelled networks showed the same behaviour for the power flow at the head of the distribution system and the voltage magnitude level. The changes in voltage magnitude however is dependent on the size of the network, resulting in larger changes in the larger networks. While the voltage magnitude level of the smaller networks stays within the ± 10% range, the larger networks encounter voltage magnitude violations. Thus, it can be concluded that the larger networks are not ready (under the current conditions) for large penetrations of low-carbon energy technologies, while the smaller networks appear to be ready.