Towards adaptive facade retrofitting for enegy neutral mixed-use buildings

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The purpose of this research is to provide a set of guidelines for systemized façade retrofitting in mixed-use buildings to become nearly energy neutral. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) are parts of the major energy consumption in buildings. Nevertheless, until recent times, all efforts and attentions have mainly been focused on increasing and optimizing the thermal insulation of the envelope components. The development of dynamic building envelope technologies, which are capable of adapting to changing outdoor and indoor environments, is considered to contribute to achieving nearly energy neutral buildings.