A Complete DC Trolleybus Grid Model With Bilateral Connections, Feeder Cables, and Bus Auxiliaries

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This paper offers a complete and verified model of DC trolleybus grids and examines the effect of the common modelling assumptions made in literature by using simulations, as well as bus and substation measurements from the grid of Arnhem, the Netherlands. An equivalent model for the overhead line impedance is offered taking into account the single line impedance, the supply and return lines, and the parallel connections between them. A case study shows that the feeder cables from the substations to the sections can be ignored, but only for certain substation power and feeder-line length ranges. On the other hand, the often-neglected regenerative braking, bus auxiliaries load, bilateral connections, and the exact nominal substation voltage are found to be crucial for the correct modelling of a trolleybus grid.