Sensitivity of the near-surface vertical electric field land Controlled-Source Electromagnetic monitoring

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We investigate potential benefits of measuring the vertical electric field component in addition to the routinely measured horizontal electric field components in onshore time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics. Synthetic electromagnetic data based on a model of the Schoonebeek onshore oil field are used. We confirm that the vertical electric field component is more sensitive to small changes in the reservoir than the horizontal components, yet its amplitudes are small. Accordingly, optimal source-receiver geometry and precise knowledge of the verticality of the receiver dipole will be required for successful utilization of the vertical electric field.