Intra-renal microcirculatory alterations on non-traumatic hemorrhagic shock induced acute kidney injury in pigs

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently seen in patients with hemorrhagic shock due to hypotension, tissue hypoxia, and inflammation despite adequate resuscitation. There is a lack of information concerning the alteration of renal microcirculation and perfusion during shock and resuscitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of renal microcirculatory alterations on development of renal dysfunction in a pig model of non-traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS) induced AKI. Fully instrumented female pigs were divided into the two groups as Control (n = 6) and HS (n = 11). HS was achieved by withdrawing blood until mean arterial pressure (MAP) reached around 50 mmHg. After an hour cessation period, fluid resuscitation with balanced crystalloid was started for the duration of 1 h. The systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal microcirculatory perfusion (contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)) and the sublingual microcirculation were measured. CEUS peak enhancement was significantly increased in HS during shock, early-, and late resuscitation indicating perfusion defects in the renal cortex (p < 0.05 vs. baseline, BL) despite a stable renal blood flow (RBF) and urine output. Following normalization of systemic hemodynamics, we observed persistent hypoxia (high lactate) and high red blood cell (RBC) velocity just after initiation of resuscitation resulting in further endothelial and renal damage as shown by increased plasma sialic acid (p < 0.05 vs. BL) and NGAL levels. We also showed that total vessel density (TVD) and functional capillary density (FCD) were depleted during resuscitation (p < 0.05). In this study, we showed that the correction of systemic hemodynamic variables may not be accompanied with the improvement of renal cortical perfusion, intra-renal blood volume and renal damage following fluid resuscitation. We suggest that the measurement of renal injury biomarkers, systemic and renal microcirculation can be used for guiding to the optimization of fluid therapies.