Graphene oxide nanocellulose composite as a highly efficient substrate-free room temperature gas sensor

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This study introduces the development of novel, flexible gas sensors operating at room temperature (RT), utilizing a graphene oxide (GO) via the modified Hummers' method and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) composite to enhance gas detection in industrial and environmental settings. The composite materials, denoted as GO@BNC, were synthesized with varying GO concentrations ranging from 2 % to 30 %, aiming to investigate their responsiveness to gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), acetone (Ac), and ethanol (Eth). The prepared nanomaterials were characterized using FT-IR, Raman, TGA, SEM, and AFM techniques. The bandgap of Go ranges from 4.19, 3.47, 3.16, 2.79, and 2.48 eV for 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 % GO concentrations, respectively. Notably, the sensor containing wt % of 20 % GO concentration exhibited remarkable sensitivity to Ac, achieving a 270 % increase in resistance at a concentration of 250 μL/L. Conversely, the sensor with a wt % of 30 % GO composition showed superior sensitivity to Eth, with a 420 % signal enhancement under similar conditions. Further modification of GO@BNC through mild reduction resulted in the formation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO@BNC) composites intended to assess the functional groups' impact on sensing performance. Our findings underscore the potential of GO@BNC composites as sustainable and efficient materials for fabricating eco-friendly flexible gas sensors and devices for detecting organic compounds.