Cost-effectiveness of decarbonisation options for the vegetable oil and fat industry in the Netherlands

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Technologies for the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in the Dutch vegetable oil and fat industry are identified and characterised by their costs and carbon emission reduction potential. The Dutch vegetable oil and fat industry consists of seven companies each producing more than 10 kton CO2 per year, emitting a total of 0.36 Mton CO2 in 2018. In this study, Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves are created to obtain an overview of the most cost-effective decarbonisation options. Both energy efficiency improvement technologies and alternative heating systems are required to achieve full decarbonisation of this industry. The energy consumption for the vegetable oil processing can be reduced by 44%, 45% and 57% for rapeseed oil, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively. The Vertical Ice Condensing technology is the most cost-effective decarbonisation option and a biogas boiler is the most-effective alternative heating system that can supply the energy in all stages of the vegetable oil processes. However, the energy substitution by a biogas boiler is limited by the biomass available from processing residues. Therefore, an electric boiler is required to deliver the residual energy supply to realise zero carbon emissions. The cost-effective decarbonisation options can abate cooperatively 38% and 40% of the total CO2 emissions for 2020 and 2030 respectively.