Evaluation of Implicit and Explicit Wave Dissipation Models for Submerged and Emergent Aquatic Vegetation

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To address the important research question of whether implicit (bottom friction) or explicit (stem drag) dissipation models are most appropriate for the prediction of wave attenuation due to aquatic vegetation, the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) spectral wave model has been extended with an explicit frequency-dependent dissipation model for submerged and emergent vegetation. The new explicit model is compared to existing explicit and implicit dissipation models in SWAN, and the distinguishing features of each of the dissipation models are quantified. The present work verifies the implementation of the new and existing dissipation models, outlines their distinguishing features, and compares model predictions against experimental data. The emphasis is on the transformation of the spectral wave periods Tm0;1 and Tm 1;0 over a canopy. Model evaluation based on academic and laboratory cases allows for recommendations regarding applicability of the three dissipation models, where the new method has the broadest applicability, since it bridges the gap in applicability between the other two dissipation models. The implementation of Jacobsen, McFall, and van der A (2019; A frequency distributed dissipation model for canopies; Coastal Engineering, 150, 135-146) is publicly available in SWAN version 41.31B.