Cooperative lane-changing in mixed traffic

a deep reinforcement learning approach

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Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has made remarkable progress in autonomous vehicle decision-making and execution control to improve traffic performance. This paper introduces a DRL-based mechanism for cooperative lane changing in mixed traffic (CLCMT) for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). The uncertainty of human-driven vehicles (HVs) and the microscopic interactions between HVs and CAVs are explicitly modelled, and different leader-follower compositions are considered in CLCMT, which provides a high-fidelity DRL learning environment. A feedback module is established to enable interactions between the decision-making layer and the manoeuvre control layer. Simulation results show that the increase in CAV penetration leads to safer, more comfort, and eco-friendly lane-changing behaviours. A CAV-CAV lane-changing scenario can enhance safety by 24.5%–35.8%, improve comfort by 8%–9%, and reduce fuel consumption and emissions by 5.2%–12.9%. The proposed CLCMT promises advantages in the lateral decision-making and motion control of CAVs.