Carrier multiplication (CM) is the process in which multiple electronâ€“hole pairs are created upon absorption of a single photon in a semiconductor. CM by an initially hot charge carrier occurs in competition with cooling by phonon emission, with the respective rates determining t
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Carrier multiplication (CM) is the process in which multiple electronâ€“hole pairs are created upon absorption of a single photon in a semiconductor. CM by an initially hot charge carrier occurs in competition with cooling by phonon emission, with the respective rates determining the CM efficiency. Up until now, CM rates have only been calculated theoretically. We show for the first time how to extract a distinct CM rate constant from experimental data of the relaxation time of hot charge carriers and the yield of CM. We illustrate this method for PbSe quantum dots. Additionally, we provide a simplified method using an estimated energy loss rate to estimate the CM rate constant just above the onset of CM, when detailed experimental data of the relaxation time is missing.@en