Tidal energy generation in Kalpasar

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Abstract

In the future, two enormous challenges face humanity: decreasing the carbon emissions and supporting the growing energy demands in the developing regions of the world. These challenges highlight the need for a greater amount of implementation of renewable energy projects. This thesis tackles one such potential project, the modeling of a tidal barrage power plant based in the Gulf of Khambhat off the Western coast of India. The Gulf of Khambhat has a high tidal range of 8-11 m, and has a large amount of energy that is theoretically available. However, only a fraction of this energy is expected to be extractable. A focus was placed on modeling the entire operation of the tidal barrage power plant and understanding the interactions of the local regime with thepower plant.Based on the results, several details about the tidal barrage power plant could be ascertained. 2 possible locations are available for placing the turbines, where sufficient depthsare present. The locations vary in the resultant tidal range available and also in the way the discharge empties/fills the basin. Based on the tidal range alone, the location on the farright of the tidal basin is deemed ideal. The turbine’s resistance to the flow also influenced the energy generation of the power plant. This influence was compared to the case without any resistance, and it was shown that in some scenarios, the resistance provided a positive influence on the energy generation. It was also shown that the barrage itself increases the tidal range available at the site.The 2 biggest influence by the local conditions were the shallowness of the basin and the presence of the tidal flats. These two factors negatively impact the energy generationin the area. The tidal flats in particular act as an obstruction to the flow, preventing a uniform filling and emptying of the basin during operation. The effects of these tidal flats are more pronounced as the water levels during operation drop. Due to this, a greater amount of energy is lost in the 2 way generation mode.The removal of these tidal flats by dredging would create a more uniform depth withing the basin and would lead to a higher energy generation, with upto 34% increase seen in the 2 way generation scenarios.Further, the strengths of the 2D modeling process was seen. For any future tidal resource assessment, not modeling the local conditions could provide highly inaccurate values of the energy generation possible.