A 0D Model for the Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Carriers in Ship’s Integrated Energy Systems

More Info


Hydrogen carriers are attractive alternative fuels for the shipping sectors. They are zero-emission, have high energy densities, and are safe, available, and easy to handle. Sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, dibenzyltoluene, n-ethylcarbazole, and ammoniaborane are interesting hydrogen carriers, with high theoretical energy densities. The exact energy density of these hydrogen carriers depends on the integration of heat and mass with the energy converters. This combination defines the energy efficiency and, thus, the energy density of the system. Using a 0D model, we combined the five carriers with two types of fuel cells (PEM and SOFC), an internal combustion engine and a gas turbine. This resulted in 20 combinations. Despite the limitations of the 0D model and the occasional difficulty of validating input values, this model still produces exciting findings, which are valuable for further research. For the dehydrogenation of both dibenzyltoluene and n-ethylcarbazole, an external hydrogen burner is required if no waste heat resources from the integrated system are available. For the borohydrides, on the other hand, energy integration is essential for reducing cooling power. Dehydrogenation produces substantial energy, but only a fraction of this energy can be used for internal preheating. Dehydrogenation of ammoniaborane produces less energy. Among all hydrogen carriers, both ammoniaborane and sodium borohydride provide energy densities comparable to that of marine diesel oil. In particular, ammoniaborane possesses a remarkably high energy density. Thus, we conclude, that hydrogen carriers are attractive alternative fuels that deserve more attention, including their potential performance for hydrogen imports.