Mean Field Game for Strategic Bidding of Energy Consumers in Congested Distribution Networks

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The proliferation of batteries, photovoltaic cells and Electric Vehicles (EVs) in electric power networks can result in network congestion. A redispatch market that allows the Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to relieve congested networks by asking the energy consumers to adjust their scheduled consumption is an alternative to upgrading network capacity. However, energy consumers can strategically increase their bids on the day-ahead market in anticipation of payouts from the redispatch market. This behaviour, which is called increase-decrease gaming, can aggravate congestion and allow the energy consumers to extract windfall profits from the DSO. In this paper, we model the increase-decrease game for large populations of energy consumers in power networks using a mean field game approach. The agents (energy consumers) maximize their individual welfare on the day-ahead market with anticipation of the redispatch market, coupled via the electricity price. We show that there exists a Nash equilibrium for this game and use an algorithm that converges to the Nash equilibrium for the infinite population case.