Searched for: author:"Happee, R."
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Stapel, J.C.J. (author), El Hassnaoui, Mounir (author), Happee, R. (author)
Objective: To investigate how well gaze behavior can indicate driver awareness of individual road users when related to the vehicle’s road scene perception. Background: An appropriate method is required to identify how driver gaze reveals awareness of other road users. Method: We developed a recognition-based method for labeling of driver...
journal article 2020
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Farah, H. (author), Bhusari, Shubham (author), van Gent, P. (author), Mullakkal-Babu, F.A. (author), Morsink, Peter (author), Happee, R. (author), van Arem, B. (author)
Lower levels of automation are designed to work in specific conditions referred to as the Operational Design Domain (ODD). Beyond these conditions, the human driver is expected to take control. A mismatch between a driver's understanding and expectations of the automated vehicle capabilities and its actual capabilities as prescribed in the...
journal article 2020
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Dialynas, G. (author), de Haan, Jelle (author), Schouten, A.C. (author), Happee, R. (author), Schwab, A.L. (author)
The objective of this study was to identify the dynamic response of the bicycle rider’s body during translational perturbations, in an effort to improve two-wheeler safety and comfort. A bicycle mock-up was equipped with sensors measuring three-dimensional seat and trunk accelerations and rider’s force responses at the seat, handlebars, and...
journal article 2020
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Rattanagraikanakorn, B. (author), Schuurman, M.J. (author), Gransden, Derek I. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Wagter, C. (author), Sharpanskykh, Alexei (author), Blom, H.A.P. (author)
Recent developments in the concept of UAS operations in urban areas have led to risk concerns of UAS collision with human. To better understand this risk, head and neck injuries due to UAS collisions have been investigated by different research teams using crash dummies. Because of the limitations in biofidelity of a crash dummy, head injury...
journal article 2020
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Griffioen, M. (author), van Drunen, P. (author), Maaswinkel, E. (author), Perez, R. S.G.M. (author), Happee, R. (author), van Dieën, J. H. (author)
Purpose: The goal of this study was to assess differences in low back stabilization and underlying mechanisms between patients with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. It has been hypothesized that inadequate trunk stabilization could contribute to LBP through high tissue strains and/or impingement. Evidence to support this is...
journal article 2020
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Rattanagraikanakorn, B. (author), Blom, H.A.P. (author), Sharpanskykh, Alexei (author), de Wagter, C. (author), Jiang, C. (author), Schuurman, M.J. (author), Gransden, Derek I. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Evaluating safety risk posed to third parties on the ground due to UAS impact requires a model of probability of fatality (PoF) for human. For quadrotor UAS, the existing impact models predict remarkably different PoFs. The most pessimistic is the impact model adopted by Range Commanders Council (RCC) while the Blunt Criterion model is far...
conference paper 2020
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Kovacsova, N. (author), Grottoli, M. (author), Celiberti, Francesco (author), Lemmens, Yves (author), Happee, R. (author), Hagenzieker, M.P. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Powered two-wheeler riders are frequently involved in crashes at intersections because an approaching car driver fails to give right of way. This simulator study aimed to investigate how riders perform an emergency braking maneuver in response to an oncoming car and, second, whether longitudinal motion cues provided by a motion platform...
journal article 2020
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), van Arem, B. (author), Happee, R. (author)
A necessary condition for the effective integration of automated vehicles in our daily lives is their acceptance by passengers inside and pedestrians and cyclists outside the automated vehicle. 119 respondents experienced an automated shuttle ride with a ‘hidden steward on board’ in a mixed traffic environment in Berlin-Schöneberg. A mixed...
journal article 2020
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Cabrall, C.D.D. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Objective: We investigated a driver monitoring system (DMS) designed to adaptively back up distracted drivers with automated driving. Background: Humans are likely inadequate for supervising today’s on-road driving automation. Conversely, backup concepts can use eye-tracker DMS to retain the human as the primary driver and use computerized...
journal article 2020
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Mullakkal-Babu, F.A. (author), Wang, M. (author), He, X. (author), van Arem, B. (author), Happee, R. (author)
We present an approach to assess the risk taken by on-road vehicles within the framework of artificial field theory, envisioned for safety analysis and design of driving support/automation applications. Here, any obstacle (neighboring entity on the road) to the subject vehicle is treated as a finite scalar risk field that is formulated in the...
journal article 2020
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Louw, Tyron (author), Innamaa, Satu (author), Lethonen, Esko (author), Beuster, Anja (author), Torrao, Guilhermina (author), Bjorvatn, Afsaneh (author), Kessel, Tanja (author), Malin, Fanny (author), Happee, R. (author), Merat, Natasha (author)
We investigated public acceptance of conditionally automated (SAE Level 3) passenger cars using a questionnaire study among 9,118 car-drivers in eight European countries, as part of the European L3Pilot project. 71.06% of respondents considered conditionally automated cars easy to use while 28.03% of respondents planned to buy a conditionally...
journal article 2020
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Cabrall, C.D.D. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
For transitions of control in automated vehicles, driver monitoring systems (DMS) may need to discern task difficulty and driver preparedness. Such DMS require models that relate driving scene components, driver effort, and eye measurements. Across two sessions, 15 participants enacted receiving control within 60 randomly ordered dashcam videos ...
journal article 2020
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Lu, Z. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In highly automated driving, drivers occasionally need to take over control of the car due to limitations of the automated driving system. Research has shown that visually distracted drivers need about 7 s to regain situation awareness (SA). However, it is unknown whether the presence of a hazard affects SA. In the present experiment, 32...
journal article 2020
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Doubek, F.H. (author), Loosveld, Erik (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In highly automated driving, the driver can engage in a nondriving task but sometimes has to take over control. We argue that current takeover quality measures, such as the maximum longitudinal acceleration, are insufficient because they ignore the criticality of the scenario. This paper proposes a novel method of quantifying how well the...
journal article 2020
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Madigan, Ruth (author), van Arem, B. (author), Merat, Natasha (author), Happee, R. (author)
The study investigated the interrelationships between the UTAUT2 (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) constructs predicting intentions to use driverless automated shuttles. Survey data was gathered from individuals physically experiencing an automated shuttle in a mixed traffic environment on public roads in Trikala (Greece)...
journal article 2020
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Dreger, F.A. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Shyrokau, B. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Merging sections are challenging for drivers of heavy goods vehicles. Visual support for merging was evaluated in a simulator. Experiment 1 tested HMIs that provided participants (n = 5) driving on the on-ramp with a top view or various forms of speed advice for accelerating behind or in front of a truck platoon on the freeway. Experiment 2...
conference paper 2019
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de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Dodou, D. (author), Happee, R. (author), Eisma, Y.B. (author)
Vehicles are increasingly equipped with sensors that measure the state of the vehicle and surrounding road users. Although most of these sensor data currently remain local to the vehicle, the data could be shared with the aim to improve road safety. We postulate that there is a range of scenarios regarding data sharing, with two extremes: In...
journal article 2019
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Zhang, Bo (author), Lu, Z. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Martens, Marieke (author)
In the context of automated driving, a monitoring request (MR) is a means to prepare drivers for a take-over event. However, driver compliance may be an issue because not all MRs require a take-over. In this study, we investigated how drivers’ compliance with MRs was associated with previously experienced scenarios. The compliance level was...
conference paper 2019
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Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Mullakkal-Babu, F.A. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Driver mental workload is an important factor in the operational safety of automated driving. In this study, workload was evaluated subjectively (NASA R-TLX) and objectively (auditory detection-response task) on Dutch public highways (∼150 km) comparing manual and supervised automated driving in a Tesla Model S with moderators automation...
journal article 2019
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Kooijman, L. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In future traffic, automated vehicles may be equipped with external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) that can communicate with pedestrians. Previous research suggests that, during first encounters, pedestrians regard text-based eHMIs as clearer than light-based eHMIs. However, in much of the previous research, pedestrians were asked to imagine...
journal article 2019
Searched for: author:"Happee, R."
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