Searched for: author%3A%22Happee%2C+R.%22
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Damian, Mircea (author), Shyrokau, B. (author), Carrera Akutain, Xabier (author), Happee, R. (author)
A realistic steering feel is one of the key elements to guarantee fidelity on a driving simulator in general, and in particular to replicate on-centre vehicle handling. This requires precise modelling of the steering dynamics, a high bandwidth control loading system, and coupling of virtual and physical components in agreement with...
journal article 2022
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He, X. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Wang, M. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Perceived risk and trust are crucial for user acceptance of driving automation. In this study, we identify important predictors of perceived risk and trust in a driving simulator experiment and develop models through stepwise regression to predict event-based changes in perceived risk and trust. 25 participants were tasked to monitor SAE...
journal article 2022
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Dialynas, G. (author), Christoforidis, Christos (author), Happee, R. (author), Schwab, A.L. (author)
Experiments and human rider models were used to investigate bicycle balance and steering using visuo/vestibular motion and proprioceptive feedback taking into account sensory delays. An instrumented steer-by-wire bicycle designed and built at the TU Delft bicycle laboratory was used to investigate rider responses with and with reduced...
journal article 2022
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Louw, Tyron (author), Madigan, Ruth (author), Lee, Yee Mun (author), Innamaa, Satu (author), Lehtonen, Esko (author), Malin, Fanny (author), Bjorvatn, Afsaneh (author), Happee, R. (author), Merat, Natasha (author)
The L3Pilot project tested SAE Level 3 (L3) conditionally automated driving functions addressing driving and travel behavior, impacts on safety, efficiency, environment and socio-economics, and user acceptance. To investigate individual variance in acceptance of conditionally automated cars, an online survey was performed among 18,631...
journal article 2022
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de Winkel, K.N. (author), Irmak, T. (author), Kotian, V. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), Happee, R. (author)
High levels of vehicle automation are expected to increase the risk of motion sickness, which is a major detriment to driving comfort. The exact relation between motion sickness and discomfort is a matter of debate, with recent studies suggesting a relief of discomfort at the onset of nausea. In this study, we investigate whether discomfort...
journal article 2022
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Malmsten, Victor (author), van Arem, B. (author), Liu, Peng (author), Happee, R. (author)
The present study investigated the attitudes and acceptance of automated shuttles in public transport among 340 individuals physically experiencing the automated shuttle ‘Emily’ from Easymile in a mixed traffic environment on the semi-public EUREF (Europäisches Energieforum) campus in Berlin. Automated vehicle acceptance was modelled as a...
journal article 2021
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Tabone, W. (author), Lee, Yee Mun (author), Merat, Natasha (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
The future urban environment may consist of mixed traffic in which pedestrians interact with automated vehicles (AVs). However, it is still unclear how AVs should communicate their intentions to pedestrians. Augmented reality (AR) technology could transform the future of interactions between pedestrians and AVs by offering targeted and...
conference paper 2021
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Irmak, T. (author), de Winkel, K.N. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), Bülthoff, Heinrich H. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Previous literature suggests a relationship between individual characteristics of motion perception and the peak frequency of motion sickness sensitivity. Here, we used well-established paradigms to relate motion perception and motion sickness on an individual level. We recruited 23 participants to complete a two-part experiment. In the first...
journal article 2021
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de Winkel, K.N. (author), Edel, Ellen (author), Happee, R. (author), Bülthoff, Heinrich H. (author)
Percepts of verticality are thought to be constructed as a weighted average of multisensory inputs, but the observed weights differ considerably between studies. In the present study, we evaluate whether this can be explained by differences in how visual, somatosensory and proprioceptive cues contribute to representations of the Head In Space ...
journal article 2021
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Kim, S. (author), van Egmond, R. (author), Happee, R. (author)
In automated driving, the user interface plays an essential role in guiding transitions between automated and manual driving. This literature review identified 25 studies that explicitly studied the effectiveness of user interfaces in automated driving. Our main selection criterion was how the user interface (UI) affected take-over performance...
review 2021
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Mullakkal-Babu, F.A. (author), Wang, M. (author), van Arem, B. (author), Shyrokau, B. (author), Happee, R. (author)
Current lane-based microscopic traffic simulators combine car-following and lane changing logic to describe the (often discrete) lateral vehicle motion on multi-lane road segments. However, the simulated lateral trajectories are physically unplausible and inside-lane behavior such as lane-keeping and curve negotiation cannot be modelled. In this...
journal article 2021
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), He, X. (author), Gentner, Alexandre (author), Happee, R. (author)
The present online study surveyed drivers of SAE Level 2 partially automated cars on automation use and attitudes towards automation. Respondents reported high levels of trust in their partially automated cars to maintain speed and distance to the car ahead (M = 4.41), and to feel safe most of the time (M = 4.22) on a scale from 1 to 5....
journal article 2021
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Lu, Chang (author), He, X. (author), van Lint, J.W.C. (author), Tu, Huizhao (author), Happee, R. (author), Wang, M. (author)
Surrogate measures of safety (SMoS) play an important role in detecting traffic conflicts and in traffic safety assessment. However, the underlying assumptions of SMoS are different and a certain SMoS may be adequate/inadequate for different applications. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the validity and applicability of SMoS is lacking...
journal article 2021
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Tabone, W. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author), Ackermann, Claudia (author), Bärgman, Jonas (author), Baumann, Martin (author), Deb, Shuchisnigdha (author), Emmenegger, Colleen (author), Habibovic, Azra (author), Hagenzieker, M.P. (author), Hancock, P. A. (author), Happee, R. (author), Krems, Josef (author), Lee, John D. (author), Martens, Marieke (author), Merat, Natasha (author), Norman, Don (author), Sheridan, Thomas B. (author), Stanton, Neville A. (author)
Automated driving research over the past decades has mostly focused on highway environments. Recent technological developments have drawn researchers and manufacturers to look ahead at introducing automated driving in cities. The current position paper examines this challenge from the viewpoint of scientific experts. Sixteen Human Factors...
journal article 2021
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Farah, H. (author), Bhusari, Shubham (author), van Gent, P. (author), Mullakkal-Babu, F.A. (author), Morsink, Peter (author), Happee, R. (author), van Arem, B. (author)
Lower levels of automation are designed to work in specific conditions referred to as the Operational Design Domain (ODD). Beyond these conditions, the human driver is expected to take control. A mismatch between a driver's understanding and expectations of the automated vehicle capabilities and its actual capabilities as prescribed in the...
journal article 2020
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Nordhoff, S. (author), Madigan, Ruth (author), van Arem, B. (author), Merat, Natasha (author), Happee, R. (author)
The study investigated the interrelationships between the UTAUT2 (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) constructs predicting intentions to use driverless automated shuttles. Survey data was gathered from individuals physically experiencing an automated shuttle in a mixed traffic environment on public roads in Trikala (Greece)...
journal article 2020
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Cabrall, C.D.D. (author), Stapel, J.C.J. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
Objective: We investigated a driver monitoring system (DMS) designed to adaptively back up distracted drivers with automated driving. Background: Humans are likely inadequate for supervising today’s on-road driving automation. Conversely, backup concepts can use eye-tracker DMS to retain the human as the primary driver and use computerized...
journal article 2020
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Lu, Z. (author), Happee, R. (author), de Winter, J.C.F. (author)
In highly automated driving, drivers occasionally need to take over control of the car due to limitations of the automated driving system. Research has shown that visually distracted drivers need about 7 s to regain situation awareness (SA). However, it is unknown whether the presence of a hazard affects SA. In the present experiment, 32...
journal article 2020
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Irmak, T. (author), Pool, D.M. (author), Happee, R. (author)
We investigated and modeled the temporal evolution of motion sickness in a highly dynamic sickening drive. Slalom maneuvers were performed in a passenger vehicle, resulting in lateral accelerations of 0.4 g at 0.2 Hz, to which participants were subjected as passengers for up to 30 min. Subjective motion sickness was recorded throughout the...
journal article 2020
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Griffioen, M. (author), van Drunen, P. (author), Maaswinkel, E. (author), Perez, R. S.G.M. (author), Happee, R. (author), van Dieën, J. H. (author)
Purpose: The goal of this study was to assess differences in low back stabilization and underlying mechanisms between patients with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. It has been hypothesized that inadequate trunk stabilization could contribute to LBP through high tissue strains and/or impingement. Evidence to support this is...
journal article 2020
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