Defects, Fault Modeling, and Test Development Framework for RRAMs

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Resistive RAM (RRAM) is a promising technology to replace traditional technologies such as Flash, because of its low energy consumption, CMOS compatibility, and high density. Many companies are prototyping this technology to validate its potential. Bringing this technology to the market requires high-quality tests to ensure customer satisfaction. Hence, it is of great importance to deeply understand manufacturing defects and accurately model them to develop optimal tests. This paper presents a holistic framework for defect and fault modeling that enables the development of optimal tests for RRAMs. An overview and classification of RRAM manufacturing defects are provided. Defects in contacts and interconnects are modeled as resistors. Unique RRAM defects, e.g., forming defects, require Device-Aware defect modeling which incorporates the defect's impact on the device's electric properties by adjusting the affected technology and electrical parameters. Additionally, a systematic approach to define the fault space is presented, followed by a methodology to validate this space. With this methodology, accurate fault modeling for contact, interconnect, and forming defects is performed and tests are developed. The tests are able to detect all faults in a time-efficient manner, thereby proving the effectiveness of the framework. Finally, an outlook on future RRAM testing is presented.